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英语翻译技巧增词

作者: 扬州翻译公司 发布时间:2018-06-21 10:38:30  点击率:

英汉两种语言由于表达方式不尽相同,翻译时常常有必要在译文的词量上作适当的增加,使译文既能忠实地传达原文的内容和风格,又能符合译入语的表达习惯。但是增词必须是根据具体情况增加非增加不可的词语。增词一般用于以下三种情况:一是为了语法上的需要;二是为了意义上的需要;三是为了修辞上的需要。 
一、为了语法上的需要 
英语中没有量词,汉译时就得根据汉语的表达习惯增加合适的量词。例如: 
(1) To the east and the south a faint pink is spreading. 
东南方呈现一抹浅红,正在向远处扩展。 
(2) The sun rose thinly from the sea. 
一轮红日从海边淡淡升起。 
(3) A stream was winding its ways through the valley into the river. 
一弯溪水蜿蜒流过山谷,汇到江里去了。 
(4) I was extremely worried about her, but this was neither the place nor the time for a lecture or an argument. 
我真替他万分担忧,但此时此地既不宜教训她一番,也不宜与她争论一通。 
(5) It was a nova! 
这是一颗新星! 
英语动词有时、体的变化、有语气,而汉语动词却没有对等的表现形式,翻译时常常须增加一些表示时体和语气的词才行。例如: 
(1) I had imagined it to be merely a gesture of affection, but it seems it is to smell the lamb and make sure that it is her own. 原来我以为这不过是一种亲热的表示,但是现在看来,这是为了闻一闻羊羔的味道,来断定是不是自己生的。 
(2) I was, and remain, grateful for the part he played in my release. 我的获释是他成全的,对此我过去很感激,现在仍然很感激。 
(3) The old man said, " They say his father was a fisherman. Maybe he was as poor as we are." 
老人说:"听人说,从前他父亲是个打鱼的。他过去也许跟我们现在一样穷。" 
(4) The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him. 
原来老头儿已教会了孩子捕鱼,所以孩子很爱他。 
(5) English prose is elaborate rather than simple. It was not always so. 
现今英国散文华巧而欠简朴,过去却并非总是如此。 
英语的可数名词有单复数之别,汉语则没有。翻译时常常有必要增词以便传达这一含义。例如: 
(1) The lion is the king of animals.狮子是百兽之王。 
(2) I saw bubbles rising from under the water.我看见一个个水泡从水下升起。 
(3) The very earth trembled as with the tramps of horses and murmur of angry men. 
连大地都震动了,仿佛万马奔腾,千夫怒吼。 
(4) The mountains began to throw their long blue shadows over the valley. 
群山已在山谷里开始投下蔚蓝色的长影。 
(5) An individual human existence should be like a river-small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past boulders and over waterfalls. 
一个人的一生可以比作一条河流:开始身躯很小,两岸之间非常狭窄,水流湍急,冲过砾石,飞下悬瀑。 
英语中常用省略句,翻译时要根据汉语的表达习惯,作些适当的增补。例如: 
(1) I judge I would saw out and leave that night if pap got drunk enough, and I reckoned he would.  
我猜那天晚上爸要是醉得够厉害的,我就可以锯完那个洞钻出去,我算计着他是会醉得够呛的。(增补he would后省略的成分) 
(2) She ate little. Food sickened her, and I think much of life too. 
她吃得很少;她厌恶食物,我觉得她也厌恶生活。 
(3) When I turned around, John was grinning, expectant, studying my face intently to see if he had pleased me. He had. 
我转过身,只见约翰正咧着嘴笑,满脸期待的神情;他热切的目光想从我的脸上探明他是否博得了我的欢心。他确实博得了我的欢心。(增补he had后被省略的部分) 
(4) Courage in excess becomes foolhardiness, affection weakness, thrift avarice. 
勇敢过度,即成蛮勇;疼爱过度,即成溺爱;俭约过度,即成贪婪。(增补被省掉的in excess becomes) 
二、为了意义上的需要 
英译汉有时有必要增加合适的动词、形容词或副词,使译文意思明确,例如: 
(1) When I came to I was in the water, swimming automatically, though I was about two thirds drowned. 
当我清醒过来时,发觉自己在水里,虽然浸得半死,却本能地浮着。(增补动词)(原文虽然没有"发觉",但译者根据上下文增补了它,使译文意思更加明确、表达通顺。) 
(2) He doubtlessly expected hugs, tablefuls of food, tears, laughter, and conversation followed by more conversation, then hugs and more hugs all over again, without end. 
毫无疑问,他以为会有热烈的拥抱,满桌的食物,激动的泪水,欢乐的笑声,一段接一段的谈话,一次又一次的拥抱,没完没了。(译文中增加了三个相应的形容词,形象地描绘出他想象中的欢乐场景,使意思更加明确,表达更加生动。) 
(3) In the evening, after the banquets, the concerts and the table tennis exhibitions, he would work on the drafting of the final communique. 
晚上在参加宴会、出席音乐会、观看乒乓球表演之后,他还得起草最后公报。 
(4) These soon told her,… how easy it was and how little it interfered with life's affairs to go and see one's grave. 
这些人不久便告诉她…去看自己亲人的坟墓是多么容易,几乎一点儿也不妨碍日常生活。 
(5) The sky is clear blue now the sun has flung diamonds down on meadow and bank and wood. 
此时已是万里蓝天,太阳把颗颗光彩夺目的钻石洒向草原,洒向河岸,洒向树林。 
有时为了意思明确还必须增加合适的名词或是重复同一名词,例如: 
(1) These early cars were slow, clumsy, and inefficient. 
这些早期的汽车速度缓慢,行动笨拙,效率不高。(译文中在形容词前分别加上了三个名词,既使译文意思明确,又使它形成四字词组,匀称整齐。) 
英语中有一些由动词或形容词派生来的抽象名词,翻译时也可根据上下文在其后增加适当的名词,使译文意思明确、符合汉语的表达习惯。例如: 
darkness 漆黑一团 
madness 疯狂行为 
complacency 自满情绪 
backwardness 落后状态 
(1) After all preparations were made, the planes were flown across the U.S. to San Francisco. 
一切准备工作就绪以后,飞机就飞越美国去旧金山。 
(2) Recourse to arms is not the best solution to a quarrel between countries. 
国与国之间的争端诉诸武力,并不是最好的解决方法。 
有时也有必要增加适当的连词,例如: 
(3)Without a sense of your fault, how can repentance and amendment be expected?如果对自己的错误都不认识,怎么能悔恨和改正呢?(增补"如果"使得原含蓄条件句中的隐性含义明白无误。) 
三、为了修辞上的需要 
为了使译文优美自如、活泼生动或是得到强调,有时有必要重复某些词语或是增加适当的描述词、语气助词、重叠词、承上启下的词、概括词。例如: 
(1) Poor little tender heart! And so it goes on hoping and beating, and longing and trusting. 
可怜这温柔的小姑娘,一颗心抖簌簌的跳个不停,她左盼右盼,一直想念情人,对他深信不疑。(译文并没有将"hoping and beating"简单地译为"盼望着、跳动着",而是增加了一些描述性的词语来描写少女思念情人的心情,使人如见其人、如听其声,产生了一种可触可摸的立体感觉。) 
(2) Their host carved, poured, served, cut bread, talked, laughed, proposed healths. 
他们的主人,(又是)割啊,(又是)倒啊,(又是)上菜啊,(又是)切面包啊,(又是)说啊,(又是)笑啊,(又是)敬酒啊,忙个不停。(增加语气助词和概括词语) 
(3) Only very slight and very scattering ripples of half-hearted hand-clapping greeted him. 
欢迎他的只有几下轻轻地、零零落落、冷冷淡淡的掌声。(叠词) 
(4) And her thoughtfulness! If the night was anyway cold or wet or windy there was sure to be a little tumbler of punch ready for him. 
她多体贴啊!要是哪天夜里较阴冷、潮湿、或是刮风,她必定要斟好一杯混合甜饮料,等着他来畅饮。(原文And her thoughtfulness!是个感叹句,翻译时增加了副词"多"、语气助词"啊",准确地传达了原文的句式和语气。) jyQ扬州翻译公司-忠信乐译翻译有限公司

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